What Causes Painful Menstruation?Posted on 2013-03-27 08:00:10
Dysmenorrhoea is derived from greek words; “dys” meaning difficulty and “menorrhea” referring to menstruation. Simply put, dysmenorrhoea means painful menstruation. Menstruation/ menses/ monthly periods all refer to the monthly flow of cellular debris, blood and mucosal tissue from the uterus through the vagina. Menses normally begin around 11 years to 14 years, although there have been recent reports of menses beginning at the age of 9 years. In the beginning, menses tend to be irregular but with time, they become regular, recurring every 21 to 35 days. Menses continue into the 40’s or 50’s, until the cessation which is referred to as menopause. Dysmenorrhea is a source of discomfort, annoyance and irritability for many women at least once a month. It is one of the most common problems related to menstruation in addition to Pre-Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and amenorrhea (lack of menses). Are there any other symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea? The pain of dysmenorrhea is described as cramping pain in the lower abdomen, just above the pubic bone. The pain is reported to be mild, moderate or severe. This pain may be accompanied by other symptoms including:
- Lower back pain
- Mood swings
- Bloating or feeling of fullness in the stomach
- Flu-like symptoms either just before menses or for the first few days of menses
- Anxiety and stress
- positive family history of dysmenorrhoea
- heavy flow of menses
- long menstrual periods
- beginning menses at a very early age (before 11 years)
- low body weight
- continuous premenstrual complaints
- alcohol consumption
- pelvic inflammatory disease – this is an infection of the pelvic region, usually involving the uterus, fallopian tubes or surrounding pelvic structures.
- Adenomyosis – This is a condition where the tissue that forms the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) is found within the outer muscular layers of the uterus.
- endometriosis – this is where tissue that forms the inner lining of the uterus is found in other areas outside of the uterus such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, behind the uterus and even on the bladder.
- uterine fibroids – these are non-cancerous (benign) muscular growths in the uterus.
- Uterine adhesions
- Other uterine conditions - cysts, polyps or tumours
- Bladder diseases
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